Latent class analysis of psychotic-affective disorders with data-driven plasma proteomics
- Translational psychiatry
Data-driven approaches to subtype transdiagnostic samples are important for understanding heterogeneity within disorders and overlap between disorders. Thus, this study was conducted to determine whether plasma proteomics-based clustering could subtype patients with transdiagnostic psychotic-affective disorder diagnoses. The study population included 504 patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder and 160 healthy controls, aged 19 to 65 years. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed using plasma samples from each individual. Pathologic peptides were determined by linear regression between patients and healthy controls. Latent class analysis was conducted in patients after peptide values were stratified by sex and divided into tertile values. Significant demographic and clinical characteristics were determined for the latent clusters. The latent class analysis was repeated when healthy controls were included. Twelve peptides were significantly different between the patients and healthy controls after controlling for significant covariates. Latent class analysis based on these peptides after stratification by sex revealed two distinct classes of patients. The negative symptom factor of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was significantly different between the classes (t = −2.070, p = 0.039). When healthy controls were included, two latent classes were identified, and the negative symptom factor of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale was still significant (t = −2.372, p = 0.018). In conclusion, negative symptoms should be considered a significant biological aspect for understanding the heterogeneity and overlap of psychotic-affective disorders.