Abnormal thalamocortical networks involving specific thalamic nuclei have been implicated in schizophrenia pathophysiology. While comparable topography of anatomical and functional connectivity abnormalities has been reported in patients across illness stages, previous functional studies have been confined to anatomical pathways of thalamocortical networks. To address this issue, we incorporated large-scale brain network dynamics into examining thalamocortical functional connectivity. Forty patients with first-episode psychosis and forty healthy controls underwent T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Independent component analysis of voxelwise thalamic functional connectivity maps parcellated the cortex into thalamus-related networks, and thalamic subdivisions associated with these networks were delineated. Functional connectivity of (i) networks with the thalamus and (ii) thalamic subdivision seeds were examined. In patients, functional connectivity of the salience network with the thalamus was decreased and localized to the ventrolateral (VL) and ventroposterior (VP) thalamus, while that of a network comprising the cerebellum, temporal and parietal regions was increased and localized to the MD thalamus. In patients, thalamic subdivision encompassing the VL and VP thalamus demonstrated hypoconnectivity and that encompassing the MD and pulvinar regions demonstrated hyperconnectivity. Our results extend the implications of disrupted thalamocortical networks involving specific thalamic nuclei to dysfunctional large-scale brain network dynamics in schizophrenia pathophysiology.